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      1. 首頁 > gas
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        • Comparison and application of different empirical correlations for estimating the hydrate safety mar

          As the oil and gas industries continue to increase their activity in deep water, gas hydrate hazards will become more serious and challenging, both at present and in the future.Accurate predictions of the hydrate-free zone and the suitable addition of salts and/or alcohols in preparing drilling fluids are particularly important both in preventing hydrate problems and decreasing the cost of drilling operations.In this paper, we compared several empirical correlations commonly used to estimate the hydrate inhibition effect of aqueous organic and electrolyte solutions using experiments with ethylene glycol (EG) as a hydrate inhibitor.The results show that the Najibi et al.correlation (for single and mixed thermodynamic inhibitors) and the Ostergaard et al.empirical correlation (for single thermodynamic inhibitors) are suitable for estimating the hydrate safety margin of oil-based drilling fluids (OBDFs) in the presence of thermodynamic hydrate inhibitors.According to the two correlations, the OBDE composed of 1.6 L vaporizing oil, 2% emulsifying agent, 1% organobentonite, 0.5% SP-1, 1% LP-1, 10% water and 40% EG, can be safely used at a water depth of up to 1900 m.However, for more accurate predictions for drilling fluids, the effects of the solid phase, especially bentonite, on hydrate inhibition need to be considered and included in the application of these two empirical correlations....

          2020-12-22 21:24:13瀏覽:51 oil-baseddrillingfluidgashydratesethyleneglycolinhibitionprediction

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        • 添加劑對煙氣脫硫的強化作用

          采用鼓泡式煙氣脫硫反應裝置,研究了己二酸、硫酸鎂、無機鹽A和無機鹽B等4種添加劑的脫硫強化作用.實驗結果表明:4種添加劑均能較明顯地提高脫硫漿液的脫硫率,且添加無機鹽A和無機鹽B的脫硫效果更好;隨著添加劑加入量的增加,脫硫率逐漸提高,綜合考慮,本實驗適宜的添加劑加入量為1.0 g/L.現場實際應用中加入質量比為1∶1的無機鹽A和無機鹽B作為復合添加劑,在使用2臺循環泵、煙氣流量約1 020 km3/h、初始SO2質量濃度由2 981 mg/Nm3增加至約3 843 mg/Nm3的條件下,脫硫率仍由81.79%提高到89.92%....

          2020-12-09 22:57:44瀏覽:19 煙氣脫硫石灰石-石膏法添加劑脫硫率廢氣處理fluegasdesulfurizationlimestone-gypsumprocess

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        • 添加劑對聚砜膜氣體分離性能和結構的影響

          以聚砜為膜材料,通過浸入沉淀相轉化法制備聚砜平板膜.溶劑為N,N-二甲基乙酰胺,凝膠介質為水.以有機小分子無水乙醇、正戊醇、丙酮、磷酸三丁酯,有機大分子聚乙二醇(PEG-400,PEG-2000)和無機小分子無水氯化鋰為添加劑來調節膜結構,通過滲透性、選擇性和電鏡圖(SEM)來評價添加劑對膜性能、結構的影響,選擇工業上適用于氣體分離的添加劑.結果表明,聚乙二醇有較高的滲透性和選擇性,其次為磷酸三丁酯,但由于聚乙二醇價格昂貴,所以選擇磷酸三丁酯為較優添加劑....

          2020-12-06 21:11:24瀏覽:29 聚砜氣體分離添加劑選擇性滲透速率polysulfonegasseparationadditiveselectivitypermeation

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        • Comparison and Analysis of Fabric Deodorization Test Methods

          The test methods of deodorization fabric are studied in daily life.In view of different deodorization fabrics and source gases,the detector tube method and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) method were chosen to test the deodorizing rates of fabric and the influencing factors on deodorization test were discussed.Through the two methods,the residual concentration of odorous substance after adsorption can be measured,and the deodorizing rates of deodorization fabric can be got by calculation.The results show that the two test methods are both appropriate for deodorization test of fabric....

          2020-12-06 21:11:24瀏覽:22 deodorizationfabricdeodorizingratedetectortubegaschromatography-flame

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        • A New Grade Carbon Black Produced by Thermal Plasma Process

          This paper presents a new route about producing carbon black, by which the naturalgas cracking is carried out in the absence of oxygen thanks to an electric energy supply externallygiven by a plasma jet. The carbon black produced by this process has a narrow size distributionand a small average diameter of 38 nm as well as a highly branched aggregate. The higher DBPvalue of 1.40 ml/g shows it should be a high structure carbon black. The FTIR spectra shows thatthere are lots of aromatic c-c bonds and a large amount of nitrogen-containing functional groupson the carbon blacks surface, such as -NH, -CN as well as -CH, -OH, -COOH groups....

          2020-11-11 22:33:38瀏覽:28 carbonblackthermalplasmanaturalgas

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        • Comparisons between different models for thermal simulation of GTAW process

          Two mathematical models are built to study the effects of the fluid flow on thermal distributions of the gas tungsten arc welding(GTAW) process. One model is based on the heat conductivity equation, which doesn' t take the effects of the fluid flow into account, and the other couples the laminar heat transfer and fluid flow in the weld pool, which is called laminar fluid flow model in short. The simulated results of the two models show that the pattern and velocity of the fluid flow play a critical role in determining the thermal distribution and the weld pool shape. For the laminar fluid flow model, its highest temperature is 400 K lower than that calculated with the other model and the depth of its weld pool is shallower too, which is mainly caused by the main vortex of the flow in the weld pool....

          2020-11-11 22:33:38瀏覽:27 thermaldistributiongastungstenarcweldingheattransferandfluidflow

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        • Geochemical characteristics and formation process of natural gas in Kela 2 gas field

          On the basis of a large amount of natural gas components and the carbon isotope as well as some other analysis data in Kela 2 gas field, the geochemical characteristics, source, origin, and formation process of natural gas have been discussed. The components of gas in the field tend to be "dry", and the drying coefficient is close to 1.0. The carbon isotope tends to be heavier, for instance, the average of 13C1 is 27.36‰ and that of 13C2 is 18.5‰. Comprehensive analysis shows that humic natural gas in the Kuqa petroleum system comes mainly from Triassic and Jurassic source rocks, and the contribution of Jurassic source rocks to the pool maybe is more than that of Triassic rocks. The main cause that the gas tends to be dry and bears heavier isotope composition lies in the fact that Kela 2 natural gas is the accumulation of late production of humic source rocks, and it is affected by the abnormal high pressure as well. Considering the hydrocarbon generating and structural history, we can regard the gas pool formation processes as twice filling and twice adjusting (destroying), that is, the filling and destroying process in the early Himalayan movement and the filling and adjusting in the late Himalayan movement....

          2020-11-11 22:33:38瀏覽:24 naturalgasGeochemistrysourceofreservoirformationprocessKela

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        • Purification technology of flue gas from remelting process of aluminum alloy tailings

          Through a practical example of treatment of the flue gas from the remelting process of aluminum alloy tailings, the design and calculation method of exhaust hood, as well as the principles and the equipments of dust removal, smoke abatement and harmful gas elimination were studied. Combination of centrifugal and wet dust removal can purify the dust high efficiently. The carbon black and harmful gases in the flue gas can be removed by adding a small quantity of activator to the absorption solution. The application results are that the dedusting efficiency is 97.43%, Cl2 control efficiency is 88.03%, the exhaust fume blackness is lower than Ringelman number I, and the purification device resistance is 1126Pa....

          2020-11-11 22:33:38瀏覽:25 aluminumalloytailingsfluegaspurification

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        • Evaluation of Process Capability in Gas Carburizing Process to Achieve Quality through Limit Design

          Steel is the most important metallic material used in industry. This is because of the versatility of its engineering properties under different conditions. In one condition it can be very mild, soft and suitable for any forming operation. In another condition the same steel can be very hard and strong. This versatility is made possible by the different heat treatments that the steel can be subject to. One such treatment is Gas carburizing. This is the most widely used process for surface hardening of low carbon steels. In this method the surface composition of the steel changes by diffusion of carbon and or nitrogen and result in hard outer surface with good wear resistance properties. A striking feature of Gas Carburizing process is that in this process the original toughness and ductility remains unaffected even after heat treatment. 3% nickel chromium case hardened low carbon steels are widely used for critical automotive and machine applications such as rack and pinion, gears, camshaft, valve rocker shafts and axles which requires high fatigue resistance. Fatigue behaviour of case carburized parts depends to a great extent on the correct combination of Hardness Penetration Depth (HPD) and the magnitude of hardness at the surface and beneath the surface with low size and shape distortion. In order to reduce the manufacturing costs in terms of material consumption and elimination of the number of processing steps, the effect of Gas carburizing parameters on the fatigue behaviour should already be considered in the parameter design stage. Therefore it is of importance to optimize the gas carburizing process variables to attain quality products with respect to hardness and case depth. In the present paper, the evaluation of process capability was carried out through a Limit Design Concept called orthogonal array design of experiment. To optimize the process variables the influence of several parameters (Holding time,Carbon potential, Furnace temperature and Quench time) of the gas carburizing process on the micro hardness, total case depth, effective case depth and level of distortion of AISI 8620 steel were discussed....

          2020-11-11 22:33:38瀏覽:25 gascarburizingoptimizationcarbonpotentialholdingtimequenching

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        • Nox reduction in the sintering process

          A new process, NOx reduction with recycling flue gas and modifying coke breeze, was proposed. The effects of modified coke breeze and recycled flue gas on NOx reduction were investigated by sinter pot tests. The results show that the NOx reduction rate is over 10wt% in the sintering of modified coke breeze, the effects of the additives on NOx reduction are: CeO2CaOK2CO3.The NOx reduction rate increases with the amount of recycled flue gas, and is 22.35wt% in the sintering with recycling 30vo1% of the flue gas. When 30vo1% of the flue gas is recycled into the sintering of CeO2, CaO, and K2CO3 modified coke breeze, the NOx reduc-tion rates are 36.10wt%, 32.56wt%, and 32.17wt%, respectively....

          2020-11-10 09:33:08瀏覽:17 nitrogenoxidefluegascokebreezeceriumsintering

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        • Microstructure evolution of A1-Si semi-solid slurry by gas bubble stirring method

          A novel technique of introducing gas bubble stirring during solidification was studied to prepare Al-Si semi-solid slurry.The microstructure evolution of the slurry during slow cooling process after stirring was investigated.The effects of the solidification rate on the microstructure of the semi-solid slurry were investigated under three different solidification conditions.The results show that fine non-dendritic slurry can be obtained using the gas bubble stirring method.Ripening and coarsening of primary Al grains are observed during the slow cooling process,and at last coarsened eutectic Si appears.Primary Al grains with different sizes and eutectic Si are obtained,corresponding to three different solidification rates....

          2020-11-03 10:30:25瀏覽:20 gasbubblestirringsemi-solidslurrySolidificationratemicrostructure

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        • Flow Characteristics in an External-Loop Airlift Slurry Reactor

          The local flow characteristics in an external-loop airlift slurry reactor were investigated.The axial profiles of the local gas holdup,the Sauter mean diameter and the rise velocity were obtained.It was found that the bubble size and rise velocity were influenced by the solid holdup,and the bubble coalescence was enhanced by the increase of the solid holdup.A new correlation was used to predict the slip velocity between the gas phase and the slurry phase by taking into account the local gas holdup,the bubble size,and the physical properties of the experimental system.By using this correlation,the local drag coefficient can be calculated in the bubble swarm....

          2020-11-03 10:30:25瀏覽:18 slurryreactorbubblegasholdupslipvelocitydragcoefficient

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        • Porous Cube-like In2O3 Nanoparticles and Their Sensing Characteristics toward Ethanol

          Porous cube-like crystalline In2O3 nanoparticles with an average diagonal length of 34.8 nm were fabricated by a laser ablation-reflux process to form In(OH)3, followed by a calcination treatment to yield porous In2O3. HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electronic microscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller), and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analysis were used to characterize their crystalline structures, grain sizes, surface areas, and surface compositions. The as-prepared porous indium oxides were tested for their sensing properties toward ethanol. Non-porous In2O3 nanopowder (about 40 nm) was also examined in order to compare the results with the as-prepared porous In2O3 nanomaterials. The porous In2O3 exhibited much better performance than that of non-porosus In2O3, and showed enhanced sensitivity with a lower detection limit than other reported In2O3-based materials when exposed to ethanol. Good gas sensitivity and linear behavior as a function of ethanol concentration were observed in the porous In2O3 nanoparticles....

          2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:19 In2O3porosityNanoparticlesgasSensor

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        • Preparation and Ethanol Sensing Properties of ZnO Nanofibers

          ZnO nanofibers with an average diameter of about 90 nm were prepared by an electrospinning method combined with a calcination process.The as-electrospun nanofibers before and after calcination were characterized by means of differential thermal analysis(DTA),thermal gravimetric analysis(TGA),X-ray diffraction(XRD) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM).The fibers after calcination at 600 ℃ belong to the hexagonal wurtzite structure.The sensor based on ZnO nanofibers exhibited excellent ethanol sensing properties at 206 ℃ such as good linear dependence in the low concentration(1-100 μL/L),high response,and good selectivity.Fast response(less than 2 s)and recovery(about 16 s) were also observed in our investigations....

          2020-10-22 17:35:41瀏覽:22 ElectrospinningmethodZnOnanofiberethanolgasSensor

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        • 焦爐煤氣非催化部分氧化制合成氣實驗研究與數值模擬

          在帶有單孔噴嘴石英管反應器實驗的基礎上,對焦爐煤氣非催化部分氧化工藝制合成氣進行了研究,分析了O_2/GAS比對合成氣各組分含量的影響,反應器中反應過程和溫度分布及出口產品組成.實驗結果表明CH4轉化率隨O_2/GAS比增大而增大,O_2/GAS比調節到0.22~0.26時,CH_4轉化率達到95%~97%,此時合成氣CH_4含量低于1%.利用CFD軟件平臺對轉化反應器進行了數值模擬.模擬結果顯示,流量一定時出口氣體組分H_2與CH4分別隨著進氣氧氣與焦爐煤氣體積流量比值的增加而減少.CO和CO_2分別隨著比值的增加而增加.出口氣體有效組分摩爾分數隨進氣流量的變化不是非常明顯.在壁面溫度為1 100 K時轉化效果最好....

          2020-10-02 20:35:09瀏覽:17 焦爐煤氣計算流體力學數值模擬反應器流場cokeovengascomputationhydromechanicsnumerical

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        • 天然氣催化部分氧化制合成氣工藝模擬及中試放大

          利用Aspen plus軟件,對天然氣催化部分氧化制合成氣的中試工程問題進行了研究,通過模擬計算及中試試驗,考察了原料氣的進料方式、預熱溫度以及放熱氧化反應與吸熱重整反應的能量耦合等對反應過程的影響.熱力學計算結果表明,在2 MPa的壓力下,反應溫度需高于1273 K,合成氣收率才能大于80%,而在近似絕熱的反應條件下原料氣預熱溫度則需控制在773 ~ 923 K.開發出適于天然氣催化部分氧化制合成氣的熱量耦合型固定床反應裝置,進料方式采用雙流道外混合型噴嘴,模擬計算及中試試驗表明該技術方案可行....

          2020-10-02 20:35:09瀏覽:54 天然氣催化部分氧化合成氣中試放大熱量耦合工藝模擬熱力學計算AspenPlus軟件naturalgascatalyticpartial

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        • 固相萃取-氣相色譜法測定合成氣制烯烴產物中的含氧化合物

          采用 C18固相萃取技術對合成氣制烯烴(SGTO)的產物進行預處理,將產物分離為含氧化合物與烴類,采用氣相色譜-質譜法(GC-MS)考察分離效果并鑒定產物中的含氧化合物,使用氫焰離子化檢測( FID)定量實際樣品中的含氧化合物,使用其正構2-酮、正構醇的響應因子作為同碳數酮、醇的 FID 響應因子。優化 C18小柱洗脫條件,使用標準樣品比較預處理前后的方法回收率。醇類標準品回收率為88%~98%,酮類標準品回收率為64%~87%。在197~4785 mg / L 范圍內,標準品具有較好的線性關系,相關系數均大于0.99。定性并定量測定了 SGTO產物中的67種含氧化合物,發現正構醇、正構2-酮為 SGTO 產物中的主要含氧化合物,同時存在少量其他異構體。該方法操作簡單、快速、樣品需求量小,并能夠在10 min 內完成樣品的預處理。分析結果為 SGTO 工藝催化劑、動力學深入研究提供了必要的基礎數據。...

          2020-10-02 20:35:09瀏覽:41 固相萃取氣相色譜質譜氫焰離子化檢測含氧化合物合成氣制烯烴solid-phaseextraction(SPE)gas

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        • 聯合兩段氧化制合成氣/F-T合成的GTL工藝和催化劑

          A novel process for catalytic oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas), which consists of twoconsecutive fixed-bed reactors with air introduced into the reactors, integrated Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, was inves-tigated. At the same time, a catalytic combustion technology has been investigated for utilizing the F-T offgas togenerate heat or power energy. The results show that the two-stage fixed reactor process keep away from explosionof CH4/O2. The integrated process is fitted to produce diesel oil and lubricating oil in remote gas field....

          2020-10-02 20:35:09瀏覽:28 two-stagefixedreactorsyngasFischer-Tropschsynthesisgastoliquidprocess

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        • 合成氣發酵梭菌C.autoethanogenum的生長特性與CO發酵性能

          為探討合成氣發酵乙醇的新工藝,對梭菌C.autoethanogenum的生長特性及CO發酵性能進行了研究.考察了不同碳源對C.autoethanogenum生長的影響,發現木糖是其生長的最佳底物.對生長培養基進行了改良,使C.autoethanogenum的菌體質量濃度提高2倍以上,代謝產物以乙酸為主,只產生少量乙醇.利用1L氣體采樣袋研究了C.autoethanogenum的CO發酵性能,在1.0g/L酵母膏的發酵培養基中經過兩次CO發酵后,乙醇質量濃度達3.464 g/L,CO乙醇轉化率達51.7%.研究表明:N2環境、180℃、4MPa下,20 min高溫液態水處理蔗渣得到的水解液可用于C.autoethanogenum的培養,培養液再進行CO發酵,經過一次發酵后得到的乙醇質量濃度為3.13g/L,CO乙醇轉化率為46.9%,與之前兩次發酵的結果接近,但是發酵時間大大縮短....

          2020-10-02 20:35:09瀏覽:43 合成氣乙醇一氧化碳氣體發酵synthesisgasethanolcarbonmonoxidefermentation

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        • 合成氣制低碳烯烴鐵基催化劑制備研究現狀

          論述了合成氣制低碳烯烴鐵基催化劑的研究現狀,并對未來的發展前景進行展望,以期為鐵基催化劑的進一步研究提供參考。...

          2020-10-02 20:35:09瀏覽:34 合成氣低碳烯烴鐵基催化劑制備synthesisgaslightOlefinsiron-basedcatalystpreparation

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        • 合成氣經草酸酯法制取乙二醇的技術進展

          分析了當前國內乙二醇的供需狀況和發展煤制乙二醇的優勢;論述了草酸酯法制取乙二醇的工藝原理、工藝流程和技術進展;指出加強草酸酯加氫催化劑的研究并建立一定規模的工業化示范裝置是合成氣經草酸酯法制乙二醇工藝技術進入大規模工業化生產的當務之急。...

          2020-10-02 20:35:09瀏覽:64 煤制合成氣乙二醇草酸酯催化加氫技術syntheticgasmadebycoalethyleneglycolethyloxalate

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        • 煤制乙二醇裝置羰化合成氣相組分優化探討

          濮陽永金煤制乙二醇裝置羰基化合成系統在高負荷運行情況下,氣相中惰性組分CO2持續上漲,嚴重影響了主要反應物CO與MN的比例。經過對尾氣系統操作壓力的調整,以及對調整過程中數據的分析,采取了適當降低尾氣操作壓力的措施,有效地抑制了CO2的上漲,維持合成氣相組分穩定。...

          2020-10-02 20:35:09瀏覽:21 煤制乙二醇氣相組分操作壓力數據分析CTEGgascompositionoperatingpressuredataAnalysis

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        • 天然氣蒸汽轉化改造制乙二醇合成氣方案的研究

          針對國內某項目利用原先已有天然氣蒸汽轉化裝置為新建200 kt/a煤基合成氣制乙二醇工業示范裝置提供備用合成氣源的改造要求,提出了純氧配CO2和水蒸氣、純氧配CO2,純氧等3種可行方案,通過對一、二段轉化爐、燒嘴及爐體材料等指標進行對比,并對不同方案改造后各裝置運行情況及實際生產能力、不同方案投資及技術經濟指標進行了測算,最終選擇純氧配CO2和水蒸氣方案.該方案可以實現穩定供應原料氣的目的,裝置可在不同工況下保持較高的乙二醇生產平均負荷(工況1,2為滿負荷生產),合成氨產量可達1.1 kt/d,方案總投資3 083.0萬元,有項目和增量所得稅后凈利潤分別為3.8,2.3億元/a,投資回收期1.1a.該方案具有投資整體省、經濟效益優的特點.改造后裝置運行平穩、操作簡單,達到增產乙二醇及合成氨的目的....

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          2020-10-02 20:35:09瀏覽:46 生物質炭水蒸氣氣化合成氣biomass-derivedcharsteamgasificationsynthesisgas

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        • 合成氣甲烷化工藝技術研究進展

          合成氣完全甲烷化技術是煤制天然氣特有的技術,按照反應器類型,合成氣甲烷化工藝可以分為絕熱固定床、等溫固定床、流化床和漿態床等工藝,其中絕熱固定床甲烷化工藝成熟并廣泛應用于煤制天然氣項目。本文介紹了多種絕熱固定床甲烷化工藝,并比較了5種高溫絕熱固定床甲烷化工藝的流程、技術特點和應用情況。隨著研究工作的不斷深入,國內絕熱固定床甲烷化技術達到了國際技術同類水平,具備了工業化應用條件,但還需在節能降耗、提高催化劑壽命方面加大研究力度。還概述了等溫固定床、流化床和漿態床甲烷化工藝,分析了等溫固定床、流化床和漿態床甲烷化工藝存在的問題,并指出了后續研究重點,等溫固定床工藝應在反應溫度控制和反應器開發方面深入研究,流化床甲烷化工藝研究重點放在開發高強度催化劑和工程化放大方面,漿態床甲烷化工藝需要重點研究解決CO轉化率較低和催化劑損耗嚴重的問題。...

          2020-10-02 20:35:09瀏覽:10 合成氣甲烷化合成天然氣甲烷化工藝絕熱固定床synthesismethanationsyntheticnaturalgas

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